Falcons are birds of prey, but different from eagles, kites, and hawks in several ways. Unlike these other raptors, falcons kill their prey with their beaks rather than their talons. They also tend to be smaller, faster, hunt more birds, and have longer wings, among other differences. There are 7 species of falcons that regularly visit the United States, but in this article we will look at the 5 species of falcons in Minnesota.
5 Falcons in Minnesota
The 5 species of falcons found in Minnesota are the American Kestrel, Merlin, Gyrfalcon, Prairie Falcon and Peregrine Falcon.
Let’s take a look at each species.
1. American Kestrel
- Scientific name: Falco tinnunculus
- Length: 8.7-12.2 in
- Weight: 2.8-5.8 oz
- Wingspan: 20.1-24.0 in
The American Kestrel is North America’s smallest falcon, larger than a robin, but slightly smaller than a crow. But don’t let their small stature fool you. Kestrels are fierce predators that can take down other birds as big or bigger than they are, such as Northern Flickers.
They primarily feed on insects and invertebrates like grasshoppers, beetles, cicadas, dragonflies, moths and spiders. They also eat mice and other small rodents, bats, lizards, frogs and songbirds.
These tiny falcons have small heads and unique coloring of rusty browns and bluish grays. Both sexes have black barring on their back, and two black stripes on the face. Females are mostly rusty colored, while males have bluish-gray on their head and wings.
Look for them in the summer when they are most active. They often perch on fence posts and telephone wires, especially around farmland. Kestrels can position their body into the wind and hover in place, scanning the ground below.
The American Kestrel can be found in Minnesota during the breeding season, so look for them between spring and mid-fall when they head further south for the winter.
- Scientific name: Falco columbarius
- Length: 9.4-11.8 in
- Weight: 5.6-8.5 oz
- Wingspan: 20.9-26.8 in
Merlins are another small falcon found in Minnesota. In most of the state, you’ll only spot them during spring and fall migration as they pass between their breeding grounds to the north and their winter grounds to the south. However they do stick around all summer to breed in the far northern part of the state.
Their primary food source is other birds, such as house sparrows, dickcissels, sandpipers and other shorebirds. Merlins are experts at the high speed attack, zooming across the ground horizontally or even chasing their prey from below, forcing them higher and higher until they get tired. They have sometimes been observed hunting large flocks of birds in pairs.
Merlins are slightly larger than kestrels, with a stocky body and squarish head. They have a heavily streaked chest and belly, but their coloring can differ slightly from gray to brown due to geographic location. In flight, they are heavily barred on the underside of their wings.
Merlins are very widespread raptors and can be found in some capacity in all of North America. In the early 20th century their population was on the decline, but they have since recovered and are listed as low concern.
Merlins are usually on the move stalking sparrows and other small birds so they aren’t easy to spot. When they aren’t in flight they’re perched high in the treetops and thinking about their next meal. So keep an eye out near forest edges and on low perches in open grasslands.
- Scientific name: Falco rusticolus
- Length: 18.9 – 25.5 in
- Weight: 28.2 – 74.1 oz
- Wingspan: 48.4 in
These cold-weather falcons breed around the Arctic circle, then move further south into Canada for the winter. The states along the U.S.’s northern border, including Minnesota, are at the bottom of their winter range. They would be considered a lucky, rare sighting.
Gyrfalcon’s can come in two distinct color morphs, white and gray. The white morph, pictured above, can look a bit like a snowy owl with white plumage flecked with black. Gray morphs have dark backs and heads, either solid or with white banding.
In their breeding range they rely mainly on ptarmigan and seabirds for food. During the winter if they venture into the U.S. they look for areas of abundant food, such as coasts, grasslands and river valleys.
It is believed that Gyrfalcons mate for life. They nest on cliffs or reuse the nests of ravens and eagles.
4. Peregrine Falcon
- Scientific name: Falco peregrinus
- Length: 14.2-19.3 in
- Weight: 18.7-56.4 oz
- Wingspan: 39.4-43.3 in
Peregrine Falcons can be found throughout Minnesota. Most travel through the state during migration, but there are a few pockets around the state where they stay for the summer to breed, especially along Lake Superior.
Most Peregrines in the U.S. migrate far north to arctic regions of Canada and even Greenland each year to breed. Their name, “peregrine” means wanderer / pilgrim. This hints at their widespread nature, being found on early every continent world wide.
Due to pesticide poisoning, populations in eastern North America were almost totally wiped out by the middle of the 20th century. Thankfully, they have made a strong comeback.
Males and females look the same. These crow-sized falcons have a dark back and head, with a light chest and streaked underparts. They have a bright yellow coloring on their legs, around their eye and at the base of their beak.
Peregrines are not only the fastest bird, but also the fastest animals on the planet reaching speeds of well over 200 mph when diving for prey. Their prey is mainly birds, almost any species is on the menu. In urban settings, pigeons can be a large part of their diet. They also eat bats and rodents.
These falcons nest on cliff faces, even incredibly steep ones like those found in the Grand Canyon. They will also sometimes use abandoned eagle, owl or red-tailed hawk nests if there aren’t any cliffs available.
5. Prairie Falcon
- Scientific name: Falco mexicanus
- Length: 14.6-18.5 in
- Weight: 14.8-38.8 oz
- Wingspan: 35.4-44.5 in
Prairie Falcons prefer wide open spaces like grasslands and fields where they soar high overhead looking for their next meal which is usually small mammals or other birds. They are found throughout much of the the western half of the U.S. year-round. Some may move slightly east to the middle of the country for the winter months, and that’s when you can spot them in Minnesota.
While they do some soaring, they often fly low over open land. Because water can be hard to find in their preferred habitat of grassland or tundra, they often take dust baths.
In the summer, small mammals are on the menu, especially squirrels. In the winter, their diet shifts to medium sized birds including horned larks and western meadowlarks.
Their brown colors do make them somewhat camouflaged and difficult to spot sometimes. They are brown above with light colored underparts barred with brown. In flight, you can see a dark spot in the “armpit” of their wing. They have a brown “mustache”, and a white eyebrow stripe.
The prairie falcon doesn’t build much of a nest. They often look for natural crevices and depressions, or areas along a cliff with a protective overhang. A breeding pair will patrol their territory, and fight any intruding Peregrin Falcons.
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