Depending on who you ask, there are up to 25 different species of hawks in the United States. Due to different states having different climates and food sources for the various species, each state may have it’s own collection of hawks that live there at various times of the year. In this article we’ll discuss hawks in Minnesota. How many species can be found in the state, and a little bit about each one.
Raptors of all types are very interesting to me and I enjoy writing about them so I’ve been trying to cover as many states as possible recently. This helps people know the species they can find in their own states. It can be a chore to search the internet trying to find what species of hawks live in your state with all of the misinformation out there.
9 types of hawks in Minnesota
When it comes to hawks in Minnesota, there are 9 different species that you may encounter. Those species are the Red-tailed Hawk, Red-shouldered Hawk, Sharp-shinned Hawk, Cooper’s Hawk, Broad-winged Hawk, Northern Goshawk, Rough-legged Hawk, Northern Harrier and the Swainson’s Hawk.
Wanna know a little bit about where you can see them in Minnesota and what they look like?
Length: 17.7-25.6 in
Weight: 24.3-51.5 oz
Wingspan: 44.9-52.4 in
Red-tailed Hawks are probably the most common hawks in the U.S. with almost 2 million nesting hawks in North America. This number accounts for about 90% of the global Red-tailed Hawk population. These large hawks live in Minnesota and most of North America all year long. The northern parts of Minnesota have a breeding population of Red-tailed Hawks and those birds my fly further south in the winter.
Red-tailed Hawks are most active during the day or early morning and are commonly seen soaring above looking for prey with their amazing vision or perched along the roadside on telephone poles. They aren’t often seen in backyards lurking around feeders because they prey on larger animals that just songbirds. Learn more about the Red-tailed Hawk here.
Here’s a quick video we got of a Red-tailed Hawk who had a squirrel trapped under a sign post. Very clever Mr Hawk…
Length: 16.9-24.0 in
Weight: 17.1-27.3 oz
Wingspan: 37.0-43.7 in
The Red-shouldered Hawk has a breeding range in central Minnesota, and can be found in much of the eastern half of the United States. Their range doesn’t go much further west than Minnesota, but they can be found along the coast in California and south into Baja. They eat mostly small mammals, other birds, as well as reptiles and amphibians.
The population of Red-shouldered hawks has increased over the last 50 years in their range. Red-shouldered Hawks are known for living and nesting in wooded areas and forests. The biggest threat to this species is the clearing of wooded areas where they nest and breed. Red-shouldered Hawks will commonly re-use the same nest year after year. Learn more about the Red-shouldered hawk here.
Length: 9.4-13.4 in
Weight: 3.1-7.7 oz
Wingspan: 16.9-22.1 in
The Sharp-shinned Hawk is the smallest hawk in Canada and the United States. They can be found all over North America, including Minnesota. Sharpies migrate north to Canada and Alaska to breed each year, and south to Central America in the winter time. According to allaboutbirds.org, Sharpies have all 3 ranges in the state of Minnesota; non-breeding in southern Minnesota, migration in central Minnesota, and a breeding only range in the northern third of the state.
As you can tell, they are very migratory birds but you do have a couple of optimal times to see them each year as they are passing through your state. These small hawks are notorious for stalking backyard feeders. If you see one, consider taking down your feeders for a week or two and allowing the hawk to move on. Learn more about the Sharp-shinned hawk here.
Length: 14.6-17.7 in
Weight: 7.8-24.0 oz
Wingspan: 24.4-35.4 in
Cooper’s Hawks can sometimes appear to be just a larger version of the Sharp-shinned Hawk (see video below to tell the difference between Cooper’s Hawks and Sharp-shinned Hawks). They can be found year-round near the southern border of Minnesota with a breeding range in the rest of the state. Their range covers all of the United States.
They are also notorious for stalking feeders and feed almost exclusively on other birds. Their preferred habitat is forests and wooded areas but will also nest in suburban wooded areas and backyards too. Females tend to be larger and more dominant over the males of this species.
Learn more about the Cooper’s hawk here.
5. Broad-winged Hawk
The Broad-winged Hawk has a breeding-only range throughout the entire state of Minnesota. Look for them along the shores of Lake Superior and forests in both the Spring and Fall each year. Broad-winged Hawks migrate each year by the thousands, these large flocks are called “kettles”. Another way to spot a Broad-winged Hawk while they’re in Minnesota is to simply try walking through a forest during the summer and listening for their piercing whistle.
Broad-winged Hawks have one brood each year with 1-5 eggs. The female is in charge of constructing the nest, with help from the male. They will fiercely protect their nesting site and build their nests with at least a half-mile of seperation from other birds of prey. Their diet is consistent with that of most other birds of prey.
6. Northern Goshawk
Length: 20.9-25.2 in
Weight: 22.3-48.1 oz
Wingspan: 40.5-46.1 in
Northern Goshawks are large birds of prey, similar in size to Red-tailed Hawks. The Northern Goshawk is found in most of the state, with a year-round population in northeast Minnesota. They live in large forests and may be difficult to find, but your best chance is to quietly walk and listen in mature forests with large trees. They are also known for fiercely protecting their nests and young, even attacking people who come too close.
Adults are dark slate gray on top with barred light gray underparts, and have a light stripe over their eyes. Northern Goshawks live and nest in forests high up in the trees. They are mostly opportunistic eaters with a wide range of prey including other birds, mammals, carrion, and insects.
7. Rough-legged Hawk
Length: 18.5-20.5 in
Weight: 25.2-49.4 oz
Wingspan: 52.0-54.3 in
Rough-legged Hawks and Ferruginous Hawks are the only American hawks to have feathered legs all the way down to their toes. The Rough-legged Hawk comes in two distinct variations; light morph and dark morph. The plumage of males and females look quite different in both morphs. As you might expect, light morphs are overall lighter colored with a somewhat mottled pattern, and dark morphs are a dark chocolate brown color with two-toned light/dark under their wings and tails.
Rough-legged Hawks are migratory birds. They have a non-breeding range and spend their winters in Minnesota and most of the U.S. making this the best time to see one in your state or the rest of the United States. They migrate far north to the arctic regions of Alaska and northern Canada each season to breed.
8. Swainson’s Hawk
Length: 18.9-22.1 in
Weight: 24.4-48.2 oz
Wingspan: 48 in
Swainson’s Hawks have a breeding range in southern and western regions of Minnesota. April and September is the best time to see them as they are flying into or out of their North American breeding grounds. However they will around all summer long if you live within their range. They perch on telephone poles, fence posts, and tree branches scanning the ground for signs of food.
They have one of the longest migrations of any North American raptor. Swainson’s Hawks migrate all the way from southern South America by the thousands in flocks called “kettles” each year to breed in North America. They have long wings, short tails, light underbellies, reddish-brown chests, and typically have brown and gray upper parts.
9. Northern Harrier
Scientific name: Circus hudsonius
Length: 18.1-19.7 in
Weight: 10.6-26.5 oz
Wingspan: 40.2-46.5 in
The Northern Harrier is easy to spot with their owlish faces, a white patch on their tail, and their signature gliding style, with their wings in the shape of a V. Majestic is an excellent word to describe these birds.
You can find the Northern Harrier in Central and North Minnesota during the breeding season, in southwest areas of the state year-round, and in southeast Minnesota primarily in the winter months only. You’re likely to see them over marshes, fields, and other wide-open areas.
The Northern Harrier eats small mammals. Unlike other species of hawks, Harriers rely a great deal on their sense of hearing to capture their prey.
You may also be interested in:
- Owls in Ohio
- Hawks in Texas
- Hawks in Florida
- Owls in Michigan
- Owls in Tennessee
- Hawks in Arizona
- Hawks in Wisconsin